Köhler, Wolfgang

   psychologist and physiologist; a founder of Gestaltpsychologie. Born in the Baltic city of Reval (now Tallinn in Estonia), he pursued studies in history, philosophy, psychology, and natural science. Upon taking his doctorate at Berlin in 1909, he became an assistant at the psychological institute of Frankfurt's new university. Working in 1912 with Max Wertheimer* and Kurt Koffka, he helped lay the foundation for Gestalt psychology. Upon completing his Habilitation, he was appointed in 1913 by the Prussian Academy of Sciences to direct research on Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands. Isolated during World War I—he remained until 1920—he used his lengthy solitude to reflect on Gestalt psychology. In 1917 he published Zur Psychologie der Schimpansen (Mentality of apes) and in 1920 Die physischen Gestalten in Ruhe und im stationaren Zustand (Physical being at rest and in a stationary condition).
   Kohler became acting director of Berlin's psychological institute in 1920. He taught at Gottingen in 1921 and then returned to Berlin as director of the psy-chological institute; through 1929 he worked with Wertheimer. A critic of the so-called atomistic psychologies (structuralism and behaviorism), he sponsored the notion that presumed human experience is based on organized wholes and not on a sum of atomistic perceptions. In response to opponents, he argued that the human mental process is not greater than the sum of its parts; rather, it is different from the sum of its parts.
   Kohler was an outspoken critic of the Nazis. Following a visiting appointment at Harvard (1934-1935), he resigned his Berlin positions to teach at Swarthmore. From 1958 until his death he was a research professor at Dartmouth.
   REFERENCES:Ash, "Gestalt Psychology"; IEPPPN; Wolfgang Köhler, Task of Gestalt Psychology; NDB, vol. 12; Fritz Ringer, Decline of the German Mandarins.

A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. .

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  • Köhler, Wolfgang — born Jan. 21, 1887, Tallinn, Estonia, Russian Empire died June 11, 1967, Enfield, N.H., U.S. German U.S. psychologist. His studies of problem solving by chimpanzees (The Mentality of Apes, 1917), in which he examined learning and perception as… …   Universalium

  • Köhler, Wolfgang — ► (1887 1967) Psicólogo alemán. Fue representante de la Gestaltpsychologie o psicología de la forma. (V. gestaltismo.) Experimentó en el campo de la percepción y aprendizaje. * * * (21 ene. 1887, Tallinn, Estonia, Imperio ruso–11 jun. 1967,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Köhler,Wolfgang — Köh·ler (kœʹlər), Wolfgang. 1887 1967. Estonian born German psychologist. A founder of the Gestalt psychology movement, his works include The Mentality of Apes (1917) and Gestalt Psychology (1937). * * * …   Universalium

  • Кёлер Вольфганг / Kohler, Wolfgang — (1887 1967). Кёлер, совместно с Вертгеймером и Коффкой, является основателем гештальтпсихологии. Кёлер знаменит своей идеей «инсайта в научении», «законом транспозиции», он усовершенствовал Верхаймеровскую концепцию «психофизического изоморфизма» …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Köhler — Köhler, Wolfgang …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Wolfgang Kohler — Wolfgang Köhler Wolfgang Köhler (Tallinn, 21 janvier 1887 11 juin 1967) est un psychologue allemand et l un des fondateurs de la psychologie de la forme. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Le phénomène d Insight …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wolfgang Köhler — (January 21, 1887 – June 11, 1967) was a German psychologist who, with Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka, founded Gestalt theory. Early lifeKöhler was born in the port city of Reval (now Tallinn), the capital of and largest city in Estonia, which… …   Wikipedia

  • KÖHLER (W.) — KÖHLER WOLFGANG (1887 1967) Né à Reval dans les provinces baltes, Wolfgang Köhler fait ses études à Tübingen, Bonn et Berlin, avant d’être envoyé à la station établie dans l’île de Ténériffe en 1913, où il étudiera pendant plusieurs années le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Wolfgang Kolbe — (* 24. März 1929 in Putzar bei Anklam in Mecklenburg Vorpommern; † 18. März 2000 in Wuppertal) war ein deutscher Entomologe mit dem Spezialgebiet Käfer. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Wirken 2 Mitgliedschaften und Auszeichnungen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wolfgang — /woolf gang/; Ger. /vawlf gahng/, n. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Köhler Wolfgang Korngold Erich Wolfgang Pauli Wolfgang Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus * * * …   Universalium

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